The protestant Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his disciplined army of 23,000 shifted the tide of war in 1630. They drove the Hapsburg armies out of northern germany. Gustavus was killed in battle in 1632.
How were Hapsburg soldiers paid ? By letting them rob and plunder German villages.
Which family did Maria Theresa belong to? Which country did she rule ? She was Charles VI’s eldest daughter. She ruled Austria.
Frederick the Great believed a ruler should be like a father figure or caretaker of his people.
Over the course of 1648, the various parties in the conflict signed a series of treaties called the Peace of Westphalia, effectively ending the Thirty Years ‘ War – although not without significant geopolitical effects for Europe.
The Catholics won the early battles of the Thirty Years’ War, particularly in 1620 with the victory of Ferdinand II over Frederick V .
Maria Theresa decreased the power of nobility and limited the power of labor that nobles could force peasants to do. Decreasing thepower of noblility gave her more power and she believed that the peasants must be able to sustain itself.
Note three steps the Hapsburgs took to become more powerful . 1) Frederick Willian also known as (the Great Elector) created a standing army. 2) They introduced permanent taxation. 3 ) They also weekend the representative assemblies of their territories.
Region – Refer to the inset map which regions lost the most population in the Thirty Year’s War ? Weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria.
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Archduke Maximilian Francis of Austria Archduke Charles Joseph of Austria Ferdinand Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este Мария Терезия / Сыновья Late Reign and Death Upon his death, Maria Theresa appointed her eldest son, Joseph II , as emperor and co-regent. The two frequently clashed in their beliefs.
What made Austria’s Maria Theresa a one-of-a-kind ruler. Empress of Austria Maria Theresa paved the way for compulsory education in the 18th century, but also persecuted sexual immorality. A reformer and fierce ruler, Austria marks the 300th anniversary of her birth.
Religious Policies. While Frederick was largely non-practicing (in contrast to his devoutly Calvinist father) and tolerated all faiths in his realm, Protestantism became the favored religion and Catholics were not chosen for higher state positions.
Ruler and ruled can be happy only if they are firmly united. The sovereign stands to his people in the same relation in which the head stands to the body. He must use his eyes and his brain for the whole community, and act on its behalf to the common advantage.
Frederick II (1712-1786) ruled Prussia from 1740 until his death, leading his nation through multiple wars with Austria and its allies. His daring military tactics expanded and consolidated Prussian lands , while his domestic policies transformed his kingdom into a modern state and formidable European power.